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Helminth endo-parasites of amphibians from Greame Ama, Okrika, Rivers State, Nigeria

Belema Robert 1,  
Parasitology and Entomology Laboratory, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Environ. Earth Ecol. 2020;4(1):31–37
There is only one survey on the species of amphibians and their parasites from Okrika, Rivers State, Nigeria. Therefore, this research was carried out with the intention of exploring the city for more amphibian species and also reporting on the parasites infecting them. Visual acoustic and survey methods were employed in surveying the study location, Greame Ama, for the period of September to November, 2018, and standard parasitological techniques were adopted. In comparison with the earlier research, fewer amphibian species were encountered: Sclerophrys maculata, Hoplobatrachus occipitalis, Ptychadena pumilio and P. mascareniensis. However, new parasite species were found: Diplodiscus fischthalicus, Metahaematoloechus exoterorchis and Cephalochlamys compactus. A higher prevalence of infection (96.6%) was reported here than in the earlier report. Of the nine parasite species reported in this research, three have direct transmission routes (Rhabdias sp., Cosmocerca ornata, Cylindrotaenia jaegerskioeldii), while six (Raillietiella sp., Cephalochlamys compactus, Mesocoelium monodi, D. fischthalicus, Metahaematoloechus exoterorchis and ascaridida larva) are transmitted by ingestion of either insect or gastropod intermediate hosts. However, the most prevalent species were those with direct transmission routes as is common with more terrestrial amphibian species. It is concluded that amphibian diversity in Okrika is low but more parasite species are likely to be reported with more surveys.
Chidinma Charity Amuzie   
Parasitology and Entomology Laboratory, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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